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   Trigeminal Neuralgia  
 
  The term Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN), has two words within it. Trigeminal nerve is one of the (twelve) cranial (head) nerves which has three divisions (ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular) supplying to the areas of upper eye-lid to the lower chin. Neuralgia means pain. TN is a disorder of the Trigeminal nerve which presents as facial pain and headache. The pain is characteristically severe, intense,
sharp, episodic, periodical, excruciating, stabbing and short lasting.
Trigeminal nerve is the largest of twelve cranial nerves. All sensations from the face and mouth are covered by the Trigeminal nerve. One of the branches of the Trigeminal is often injected by your dentist while working on your dental cavity.

TN is also known as tic douloureux.
When the patient's Trigeminal nerve during an acute neuralgia phase was studied under electron microscope, it was revealed that the abnormality existed at the level of the inner nerve fibers called axons which carry nerve sensation, as well as the myelin (the nerve lining covering the nerve fibers). Due to the damage to such delicate parts, the nerve fiber behave like electrical wire with open ends, leading to electric shock like pain induced by touch or jerk.

What causes Trigeminal Neuralgia?
The causes of TN are explained in detail on a separate page. In short, it has been increasingly proved and understood that most cases of TN have demyelination of the sensory nerve fibers of the Trigeminal Nerve, either in the nerve root or (rarely) the brain stem. Demyelination means an erosion of the nerve sheath, which leads to the exposure of the nerve fibers.The exposed nerve fibers often get compressed or irritated by blood vessels (pulsating arteries or veins), which lead to painful episodes of Trigeminal Neuralgia.

 
 
 
     
 
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